Do noncontingent vouchers increase drug use?

Jennifer R. Schroeder, Anne E. Gupman, David H. Epstein, Annie Umbricht, Kenzie L. Preston

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

4 Scopus citations


Data from 2 contingency management trials, targeting opiate or cocaine use, were used to investigate whether noncontingent vouchers inadvertently reinforce drug use. The control group in each trial received noncontingent vouchers matched in value and frequency to those received by experimental groups, but independent of urinalysis. Vouchers were offered thrice weekly for 8 weeks (opiates) or 12 weeks (cocaine). Both dose-response and temporal associations of noncontingent voucher receipt with drug-positive urines were assessed. Drug use was unrelated to frequency of noncontingent voucher delivery and noncontingent voucher receipt when being drug positive was unassociated with risk of subsequent drug use, with one exception: cocaine use in the cocaine study (relative risk = 1.05, 95% confidence interval: 1.01-1.09). Overall, results do not indicate a causal relationship between noncontingent voucher receipt and increased drug use.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)195-201
Number of pages7
JournalExperimental and clinical psychopharmacology
Issue number3
StatePublished - Aug 2003
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pharmacology
  • Psychiatry and Mental health
  • Pharmacology (medical)


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