Diverse influences of androgen-disrupting chemicals on immune responses mounted by macrophages

Kyong Hoon Kim, Seung Min Yeon, Hyun Gyung Kim, Hyun Suk Choi, Hyojeung Kang, Hee Deung Park, Tae Won Park, Seung Pil Pack, Eun Hee Lee, Youngjoo Byun, Sang Eun Choi, Kenneth Sung Lee, Un Hwan Ha, Yong Woo Jung

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

11 Scopus citations


Androgen-disrupting chemicals (ADCs) can alter male sexual development. Although the effects of ADCs on hormone disruption have been studied, their influence on the immune response is not fully understood. To investigate the effects of ADCs on innate immunity, we tested eight candidate ADCs for their influence on macrophages by measuring nitric oxide (NO) production and cell viability. Our results showed that treatment with a mixture of lipopolysaccharide and hexachlorobenzene increased NO production in RAW 264.7 cells, a murine macrophage cell line. In contrast, compared to exposure to a negative control, exposure to di-2-ethylhexyl adipate (DEHA), benzylbutyl phthalate (BBP), testosterone (TTT), or permethrin decreased NO production. DEHA, BBP, and TTT inhibited NO production in an inducible nitric oxide synthase-dependent manner. Treatment with bisphenol A (BPA), nonylphenol (NNP), or tributyltin chloride (TBTC) reduced NO production and induced cell death. While BPA induced RAW 264.7 cell death through apoptosis, NNP and TBTC caused cell death through necrosis. These results offer insights into the influences of ADCs on the innate immune system.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)649-656
Number of pages8
Issue number3
StatePublished - 2014
Externally publishedYes


  • androgen-disrupting chemicals
  • cell death
  • lipopolysaccharide
  • macrophage
  • nitric oxide

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Immunology
  • Immunology and Allergy
  • Medicine(all)


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