Distal extremity necrosis in captive birds.

P. P. Calle, R. J. Montali, D. L. Janssen, M. K. Stoskopf, J. D. Strandberg

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

6 Scopus citations


The necropsy files of the National Zoological Park and Baltimore Zoological Society were reviewed for cases of distal extremity necrosis (DEN) in birds. Nineteen cases of DEN occurred following either trauma or frostbite. Six birds developed an apparently primary type of DEN in which no predisposing factors were obvious clinically. The toes and feet were most commonly involved, and in several cases the beak was also affected. Some pathologic evidence is provided that certain cardiovascular lesions may predispose birds to DEN by compromising circulation of the extremities.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)473-479
Number of pages7
JournalJournal of wildlife diseases
Issue number4
StatePublished - Oct 1982
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Ecology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics
  • Ecology


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