Enhanced metabotropic glutamate receptor subunit 5 (mGluR5) function is causally associated with the pathophysiology of fragile X syndrome, a leading inherited cause of intellectual disability and autism. Here we provide evidence that altered mGluR5-Homer scaffolds contribute to mGluR5 dysfunction and phenotypes in the fragile X syndrome mouse model, Fmr1 knockout (Fmr1 -/y). In Fmr1 -/y mice, mGluR5 was less associated with long Homer isoforms but more associated with the short Homer1a. Genetic deletion of Homer1a restored mGluR5-long Homer scaffolds and corrected several phenotypes in Fmr1 -/y mice, including altered mGluR5 signaling, neocortical circuit dysfunction and behavior. Acute, peptide-mediated disruption of mGluR5-Homer scaffolds in wild-type mice mimicked many Fmr1 -/y phenotypes. In contrast, Homer1a deletion did not rescue altered mGluR-dependent long-term synaptic depression or translational control of target mRNAs of fragile X mental retardation protein, the gene product of Fmr1. Our findings reveal new functions for mGluR5-Homer interactions in the brain and delineate distinct mechanisms of mGluR5 dysfunction in a mouse model of cognitive dysfunction and autism.
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