Dietary intake of community-based HIV-1 seropositive and seronegative injecting drug users

Ellen Smit, Neil M.H. Graham, Alice Tang, Colin Flynn, Liza Solomon, David Vlahov

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

50 Scopus citations


Dietary intake was assessed in a subsample of a cohort of inner city injecting drug users (IDUs). In this population of predominantly African- American IDUs, including both HIV-1-infected and noninfected men and women, a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) and a 24-h recall were administered. One hundred seven volunteers participated. Although total caloric intake was consistently higher with the food frequency method, percent of total calories from fat, protein, and carbohydrates were similar between the FFQ and 24-h recall. Spearman's correlations for agreement between the 24-h recall and the FFQ ranged from 0.22 for vitamin E to 0.52 for carbohydrates. HIV-1 seropositives reported higher protein (p = 0.05) and fat (p = 0.02) consumption than seronegatives according to the 24-h recall. The difference in total fat consumption was due to higher intakes of saturated and monounsaturated fats (p = 0.01). Median intakes of vitamins B2 and B12, pantothenic acid (p ≤ 0.05), phosphorous (p ≤ 0.01), and selenium (p ≤ 0.005) were also greater in HIV-1 seropositives. Reported intake of vitamins A and E, calcium, and zinc were below the recommended daily allowances for both HIV-1 seropositives and seronegatives. Although intakes of most nutrients appeared adequate for the group as a whole, extreme ranges were observed and may be the result of imbalanced food selections and day to day variation. Food group analysis indicated low intakes of fruits, vegetables, milk, and milk products. More research is needed to fully understand the implication of dietary habits and nutritional status in the free-living HIV- 1-infected and noninfected IDUs.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)496-501
Number of pages6
Issue number7-8
StatePublished - Jul 1 1996
Externally publishedYes


  • 24-h recall
  • HIV
  • diet
  • food frequency
  • food groups
  • injecting drug users
  • nutrients

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism
  • Nutrition and Dietetics


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