Dietary intake and a food-frequency instrument to evaluate a nutrition intervention for the Apache in Arizona

Sangita Sharma, Xia Cao, Joel Gittelsohn, Jean Anliker, Becky Ethelbah, Benjamin Caballero

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

16 Scopus citations


Objective: To demonstrate how dietary data collected from 24-hour dietary recalls were incorporated into the development of a quantitative food-frequency questionnaire (QFFQ) for the Apache in Arizona. Design: A cross-sectional study was first conducted using 24-hour dietary recalls to identify foods for inclusion on a QFFQ that would be used to evaluate a nutrition intervention. Setting: The White Mountain and San Carlos Apache reservations in East-central Arizona. Subjects: The 24-hour dietary recalls were collected from a random sample of 53 adults (34 women and 19 men). Results: A QFFQ was developed that included all foods reported by two or more respondents, plus traditional and seasonal foods. Portion size was assessed using familiar household units and culturally appropriate food models. The final instrument contains 155 foods. Frequency of consumption is assessed using eight categories ranking from 'never or less than once a month' to '2 or more times a day'. Nutrient intakes and the five major food sources of energy, fat and sugar are presented. Conclusion: The QFFQ developed is complete and up-to-date for assessing usual food and nutrient intake for the Apache in Arizona. The instrument will be used to evaluate a food store-based nutrition intervention to reduce risk of chronic diseases.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)948-956
Number of pages9
JournalPublic health nutrition
Issue number9
StatePublished - Sep 2007


  • Apache
  • Arizona
  • Dietary assessment
  • Food and nutrient intake
  • Nutrition intervention
  • Quantitative food-frequency questionnaire

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine (miscellaneous)
  • Nutrition and Dietetics
  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health


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