Diarrhoea episodes and treatment-seeking behaviour in a slum area of North Jakarta, Indonesia

Cyrus H. Simanjuntak, Narain H. Punjabi, Ferry Wangsasaputra, Dazwir Nurdin, Sri Pandam Pulungsih, Ainur Rofig, Hari Santoso, H. Puwarwoto, Agus Sjahrurachman, Pratiwi Sudarmono, Lorenz von Seidlein, Camilo Acosta, Susan E. Robertson, Muhammad Ali, Hyejon Lee, Jin Kyung Park, Jacqueline L. Deen, Magdarina D. Agtini, John D. Clemens

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

16 Scopus citations


Visits to household during a census in an impoverished area of north Jakarta were used for exploring the four-week prevalence of diarrhoea, factors associated with episodes of diarrhoea, and the patterns of healthcare use. For 160,261 urban slum-dwellers, information was collected on the socioeconomic status of the household and on diarrhoea episodes of individual household residents in the preceding four weeks. In households with a reported case of diarrhoea, the household head was asked which form of healthcare was used first. In total, 8,074 individuals (5%) - 13% of children aged less than five years and 4% of adults - had a diarrhoea episode in the preceding four weeks. The two strongest factors associated with a history of diarrhoea were a diarrhoea episode in another household member in the four weeks preceding the interview (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 11.1; 95% confidence interval [CI] 10.4-11.8) and age less than five years (adjusted OR 3.4; 95% CI 3.2-3.5). Of the 8,074 diarrhoea cases, 1,969 (25%) treated themselves, 1,822 (23%) visited a public-health centre (PHC), 1,462 (18%) visited a private practitioner or a private clinic, 1,318 (16%) presented at a hospital, 753 (9%) bought drugs from a drug vendor, and 750 (9%) used other healthcare providers, such as belian (traditional healers). Children with diarrhoea were most often brought to a PHC, a private clinic, or a hospital for treatment. Compared to children, adults with diarrhoea were more likely to treat themselves. Individuals from households in the lowest-income group were significantly more likely to attend a PHC for treatment of diarrhoea compared to individuals from households in the middle- and higher-income groups.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)119-129
Number of pages11
JournalJournal of Health, Population and Nutrition
Issue number2
StatePublished - Jun 2004


  • Diarrhoea
  • Epidemiology
  • Incedence
  • Indonesia
  • Prevalence
  • Slums
  • Treatment-seeking behaviour

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Food Science
  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health
  • Health, Toxicology and Mutagenesis


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