Diagnosis and management of familial dyslipoproteinemias

Peter O. Kwiterovich

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

8 Scopus citations


The three major pathways of lipoprotein metabolism provide a superb paradigm to delineate systematically the familial dyslipoproteinemias. Such understanding leads to improved diagnosis and treatment of patients. In the exogenous (intestinal) pathway, defects in LPL, apoC-II, APOA-V, and GPIHBP1 disrupt the catabolism of chylomicrons and hepatic uptake of their remnants, producing very high TG. In the endogenous (hepatic) pathway, six disorders affect the activity of the LDLR and markedly increase LDL. These include FH, FDB, ARH, PCSK9 gain-of-function mutations, sitosterolemia and loss of 7 alpha hydroxylase. Hepatic overproduction of VLDL occurs in FCHL, hyperapoB, LDL subclass pattern B, FDH and syndrome X, often due to insulin resistance and resulting in high TG, elevated small LDL particles and low HDL-C. Defects in APOB-100 and loss-of-function mutations in PCSK9 are associated with low LDL-C, decreased CVD and longevity. An absence of MTP leads to marked reduction in chylomicrons and VLDL, causing abetalipoproteinemia. In the reverse cholesterol pathway, deletions or nonsense mutations in apoA-I or ABCA1 transporter disrupt the formation of the nascent HDL particle. Mutations in LCAT disrupt esterification of cholesterol in nascent HDL by LCAT and apoA-1, and formation of spherical HDL. Mutations in either CETP or SR-B1 and familial high HDL lead to increased large HDL particles, the effect of which on CVD is not resolved. The major goal is to prevent or ameliorate the major complications of many familial dyslipoproteinemias, namely, premature CVD or pancreatitis. Dietary and drug treatment specific for each inherited disorder is reviewed.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number371
JournalCurrent Cardiology Reports
Issue number6
StatePublished - Jun 2013


  • ApoA-I-containing lipoproteins lipoprotein
  • ApoB-containing lipoproteins
  • Cardiovascular disease
  • Familial dyslipoproteinemias
  • Lipid-altering drugs
  • Metabolism
  • Molecular defects of dyslipoproteinemia
  • Pancreatitis

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine


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