Diagnosis and Management of Cardiac Sarcoidosis: A Scientific Statement from the American Heart Association

Richard K. Cheng, Michelle M. Kittleson, Craig J. Beavers, David H. Birnie, Ron Blankstein, Paco E. Bravo, Nisha A. Gilotra, Marc A. Judson, Kristen K. Patton, Leonie Rose-Bovino

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review


Cardiac sarcoidosis is an infiltrative cardiomyopathy that results from granulomatous inflammation of the myocardium and may present with high-grade conduction disease, ventricular arrhythmias, and right or left ventricular dysfunction. Over the past several decades, the prevalence of cardiac sarcoidosis has increased. Definitive histological confirmation is often not possible, so clinicians frequently face uncertainty about the accuracy of diagnosis. Hence, the likelihood of cardiac sarcoidosis should be thought of as a continuum (definite, highly probable, probable, possible, low probability, unlikely) rather than in a binary fashion. Treatment should be initiated in individuals with clinical manifestations and active inflammation in a tiered approach, with corticosteroids as first-line treatment. The lack of randomized clinical trials in cardiac sarcoidosis has led to treatment decisions based on cohort studies and consensus opinions, with substantial variation observed across centers. This scientific statement is intended to guide clinical practice and to facilitate management conformity by providing a framework for the diagnosis and management of cardiac sarcoidosis.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)E1197-E1216
Issue number21
StatePublished - May 21 2024


  • AHA Scientific Statements
  • cardiomyopathies
  • inflammation
  • left
  • sarcoidosis
  • ventricular dysfunction

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine
  • Physiology (medical)


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