Diabetes and atrial fibrillation in hospitalized patients in the United States

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Background: Data on the burden of atrial fibrillation (AF) associated with diabetes among hospitalized patients are scarce. We assessed the AF-related hospitalizations trends in patients with diabetes, and compared AF outcomes in patients with diabetes to those without diabetes. Hypothesis: AF-related health outcomes differ between patient with diabetes and without diabetes. Methods: Using the National Inpatient Sample (NIS) 2004–2014, we studied trends in AF hospitalization rate among diabetic patients, and compared in-hospital case fatality rate, length of stay (LOS), cost and utilization of rhythm control therapies, and 30-day readmission rate between patients with and without diabetes. Logistic or Cox regression models were used to assess the differences in AF outcomes by diabetes status. Results: Over the study period, there were 4 325 522 AF-related hospitalizations, of which 1 075 770 (24.9%) had a diagnosis of diabetes. There was a temporal increase in AF hospitalization rate among diabetic patients (10.4 to 14.4 per 1000 hospitalizations among patients with diabetes; +4.4% yearly change, p-trend <.0001). Among AF patients, those with diabetes had a lower in-hospital mortality (adjusted odds ratio [aOR]: 0.68; 95% CI: 0.65–0.72) and LOS (aOR: 0.95; 95% CI: 0.94–0.96), but no difference in costs (aOR: 0.95; 95% CI: 0.94–0.96) and a higher 30-day rate of readmissions compared with no diabetes (aHR 1.05; 95% CI: 1.01–1.08), compared to individuals without diabetes. Conclusion: AF and diabetes coexist among hospitalized patients, with rising trends over the last decade. Diabetes is associated with lower rates in-hospital adverse AF outcomes, but a higher 30-day readmission risk.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)340-348
Number of pages9
JournalClinical Cardiology
Issue number3
StatePublished - Mar 2021


  • atrial fibrillation
  • diabetes mellitus
  • trends

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine


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