Development of opioid formulations with limited diversion and abuse potential

Paul J. Fudala, Rolley E. Johnson

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

47 Scopus citations


Non-medical abuse of prescription opioid medications is not a new phenomenon, but such use has been increasing in recent years. Various methods have been used and continue to be developed in an effort to limit diversion and abuse of opioid medications. A number of these methods will be described for opioid analgesic and addiction treatment formulations using relevant historical examples (e.g. propoxyphene, pentazocine, buprenorphine) as well as examples of formulations currently being considered or under development (e.g. oxycodone plus naltrexone, sustained-release buprenorphine). The focus, though not exclusively, will be on those formulations that represent a combination of an opioid agonist with an antagonist. These methods must take into consideration the pharmacokinetic profile of the agonist and antagonist, the expected primary route of abuse of the medication and the medication combination, the dose of medication that is likely to be abused, the availability of alternative drugs of abuse, and the population of potential abusers that is being targeted with the revised formulation.

Original languageEnglish (US)
JournalDrug and Alcohol Dependence
Issue numberSUPPL. 1
StatePublished - Jun 2006
Externally publishedYes


  • Abuse
  • Agonist
  • Antagonist
  • Diversion
  • Opioids
  • Partial agonist

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Medicine
  • Behavioral Neuroscience
  • Toxicology
  • Health(social science)


Dive into the research topics of 'Development of opioid formulations with limited diversion and abuse potential'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this