Development of a 4-digital mouse phantom for molecular imaging research

William P. Segars, Benjamin M.W. Tsui, Eric C. Frey, G. Allan Johnson, Stuart S. Berr

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

320 Scopus citations


Purpose: We develop a realistic and flexible 4-D digital mouse phantom and investigate its usefulness in molecular imaging research. Methods: Organ shapes were modeled with non-uniform rational B-spline (NURBS) surfaces based on high-resolution 3-D magnetic resonance microscopy (MRM) data. Cardiac and respiratory motions were modeled based on gated magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data obtained from normal mice. Pilot simulation studies in single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and X-ray computed tomography (CT) were performed to demonstrate the utility of the phantom. Results: NURBS are an efficient and flexible way to accurately model the anatomy and cardiac and respiratory motions for a realistic 4-D digital mouse phantom. The phantom is capable of producing realistic molecular imaging data from which imaging devices and techniques can be evaluated. Conclusion: The phantom provides a unique and useful tool in molecular imaging research. It can be used in the development of new imaging instrumentation, image acquisition strategies, and image processing and reconstruction methods.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)149-159
Number of pages11
JournalMolecular Imaging and Biology
Issue number3
StatePublished - May 2004


  • Computed tomography
  • Phantom
  • Simulation
  • Single-photon emission computed tomography

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Oncology
  • Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging
  • Cancer Research


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