Development and Pre-Clinical Analysis of Spatiotemporal-Aware Augmented Reality in Orthopedic Interventions

Javad Fotouhi, Arian Mehrfard, Tianyu Song, Alex Johnson, Greg Osgood, Mathias Unberath, Mehran Armand, Nassir Navab

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Scopus citations


Suboptimal interaction with patient data and challenges in mastering 3D anatomy based on ill-posed 2D interventional images are essential concerns in image-guided therapies. Augmented reality (AR) has been introduced in the operating rooms in the last decade; however, in image-guided interventions, it has often only been considered as a visualization device improving traditional workflows. As a consequence, the technology is gaining minimum maturity that it requires to redefine new procedures, user interfaces, and interactions. The main contribution of this paper is to reveal how exemplary workflows are redefined by taking full advantage of head-mounted displays when entirely co-registered with the imaging system at all times. The awareness of the system from the geometric and physical characteristics of X-ray imaging allows the exploration of different human-machine interfaces. Our system achieved an error of 4.76 ± 2.91mm for placing K-wire in a fracture management procedure, and yielded errors of 1.57 ± 1.16° and 1.46 ± 1.00° in the abduction and anteversion angles, respectively, for total hip arthroplasty (THA). We compared the results with the outcomes from baseline standard operative and non-immersive AR procedures, which had yielded errors of [4.61mm, 4.76°, 4.77°] and [5.13mm, 1.78°, 1.43°], respectively, for wire placement, and abduction and anteversion during THA. We hope that our holistic approach towards improving the interface of surgery not only augments the surgeon's capabilities but also augments the surgical team's experience in carrying out an effective intervention with reduced complications and provide novel approaches of documenting procedures for training purposes.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number9252943
Pages (from-to)765-778
Number of pages14
JournalIEEE transactions on medical imaging
Issue number2
StatePublished - Feb 2021


  • Augmented reality
  • X-ray
  • frustum
  • interaction
  • surgery
  • visualization

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Software
  • Radiological and Ultrasound Technology
  • Computer Science Applications
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


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