Determination of the real size of fundus objects from fundus photographs

Anne L. Coleman, Julia A. Haller, Harry A. Quigley

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

5 Scopus citations


Purpose: The purpose of this research was to study the accuracy of measurements that rely on Littmann curves to determine the real size of fundus images. Methods: Retinal tacks of known dimensions were placed near the optic disc in one eye of each of two cynomolgus monkeys. Images of the retinal tack and optic nerve head of these two eyes were then obtained with a Zeiss Fundus camera. The dimensions of the retinal tracks and optic discs were measured directly on the film from the Zeiss fundus camera. These measurements were then corrected with Littmann's mathematical approximations. Results: In the cynomolgus eye with 19.9 mm axial length, Littmann's mathematical approximations of the real sizes of the retinal tack and optic disc from measurements on the Zeiss film had median percent bias [(calculated size - real size)/real size] of -0.2% (range, -3.2% to 3.9%). In the other eye with 17.9 mm axial length, the median percent bias was 14.7% (range, 5.1% to 29.7%). Conclusion: The estimation of the real size of fundus images with Littmann's mathematical approximations from images on Zeiss film have < 4% bias if the eye's dimensions fall in the range over which Littmann's curves were produced.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)433-435
Number of pages3
JournalJournal of glaucoma
Issue number6
StatePublished - 1996


  • Littman curves
  • Measurement error
  • Optic disc

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Ophthalmology


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