Detection of genital tuberculosis among women with infertility using best clinical practices in India: An implementation study

Shilpa N. Naik, Ajay Chandanwale, Dileep Kadam, P. W. Sambarey, Gauri Dhumal, Andrea DeLuca, Divyashri Jain, Amita Gupta, Robert Bollinger, Vidya Mave

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Scopus citations


Background: Diagnosis of genital tuberculosis (TB) as a cause of infertility still remains a diagnostic dilemma for clinicians, as no standard guidelines exist. The recently proposed best practices for genital TB diagnosis have not been evaluated yet in India. Objectives: To implement best practices to diagnose and treat likely genital TB as a cause of infertility. Methods: Between April 2016 and June 2018, consenting women seen at a tertiary hospital infertility clinic were assessed by thorough TB related clinical history, ultrasonography, tuberculin skin test (TST), and ESR. Those with suspected genital TB underwent laparohysteroscopy. Clinical and laboratory characteristics were compared between likely (microbiologically confirmed or probable TB) and unlikely (possible and no genital TB) genital TB. Fertility outcome was assessed among women initiated on anti-TB treatment (ATT). Results: Of 185 women seeking infertility care, likely genital TB was identified among 29 (15.7%) women, with 6 (21%) confirmed and 23 (79%) probable genital TB. Compared to unlikely genital TB cases, the likely genital TB group were found to have past history of TB (p < 0.001); positive TST (p = 0.002) and elevated ESR (p = 0.001). Among the likely genital TB group, all 6 confirmed genital TB were started on ATT and 2 (33.3%) conceived. Of 5 probable genital TB started on ATT, 3 (60%) conceived. Conclusion: Approximately 1/6th of women seeking infertility care met the criteria for likely genital TB. Conception among over-half of treated probable genital TB cases provides preliminary evidence that best clinical practices can be utilized, but needs further confirmatory studies.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)85-91
Number of pages7
JournalIndian Journal of Tuberculosis
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jan 2021


  • Conception
  • Extra pulmonary TB
  • Female genital TB
  • Infertility

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Infectious Diseases


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