Designing a Pro-Equity HPV Vaccine Delivery Program for Girls Who Have Dropped Out of School: Community Perspectives From Uttar Pradesh, India

Taylor A. Holroyd, Shirley D. Yan, Vineet Srivastava, Ashish Srivastava, Brian Wahl, Christopher Morgan, Somesh Kumar, Amit K. Yadav, Mary Carol Jennings

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


India experiences a substantial burden of cervical cancer and accounts for nearly one third of cervical cancer deaths worldwide. While human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines have been introduced subnationally in some states, HPV has not yet been rolled out nationally. Given the target age group, schools are the most common delivery channel for HPV vaccines, but this fails to account for local girls who never attended or no longer attend school. We conducted a qualitative, design-informed, community-based study conducted in Uttar Pradesh, India. We assessed facilitators and barriers among out-of-school girls and proposed program characteristics to inform the design of pro-equity HPV vaccine delivery programs for out-of-school girls. Programs should improve parental knowledge of the risk of cervical cancer, engage vaccinated girls as vaccine champions, utilize varied media options for low-literacy populations, and ensure that HPV vaccine services are accessible and flexible to accommodate out-of-school girls. In areas with poor or irregular school attendance among adolescent girls, HPV vaccine coverage will remain suboptimal until programs can effectively address their needs and reach this priority population. Our findings present a meaningful opportunity for program planners to purposefully design HPV vaccination programs according to these parameters, rather than modifying existing programs to include HPV vaccine. Adolescent girls, their parents, and other community members should be involved in program design to ensure that the program can effectively meet the needs of adolescent girls who are not in school.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1039-1049
Number of pages11
JournalHealth promotion practice
Issue number6
StatePublished - Nov 2022


  • HPV vaccine
  • adolescent health
  • human papillomavirus
  • human-centered design
  • vaccine delivery
  • vaccine programming

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health
  • Nursing (miscellaneous)


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