Design and conduct of epidemiologic studies

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

12 Scopus citations


This article reviews the advantages and disadvantages of the experimental vis-a-vis the nonexperimental (observational) epidemiologic approach in the assessment of causal relationships. Nonexperimental epidemiologic strategies, including the study of ecologic correlations, concurrent and nonconcurrent prospective designs, as well as case-control and cross-sectional designs, are briefly discussed. Among the case-control designs, reference is made to matched and to "nested" case-control studies. These different design approaches are discussed in relation to issues of external validity, bias, confounding, interaction, and precision.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)142-149
Number of pages8
JournalPreventive Medicine
Issue number2
StatePublished - Mar 1987

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Epidemiology
  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health


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