Objective: In a porcine model, we demonstrated that laparoscopic Nissen fundoplication causes a significant drop in cardiac output (30%) because it exposes both the peritoneal cavity and the mediastinum to CO2 under pressure. To determine if this occurs in humans, we examined cardiovascular physiology during laparoscopic Nissen fundoplication. Because of invasiveness required in this pilot trial, only six patients were studied. Methods: The arterial blood pressure (via radial arterial catheter) and the pulmonary artery diastolic pressure and cardiac index (via pulmonary artery thermodilution catheter) were measured at seven points in time during each laparoscopic Nissen fundoplication. Results: The systolic blood pressure decreased in all patients, and the cardiac index decreased in all but one patient. The exception was a patient with Huntington disease, in whom the cardiac output did not decrease. In four of the five patients, the cardiac output was lowest during hiatal dissection, and in the fifth, it was lowest after reverse Trendelenburg positioning. No significant change in the pulmonary artery diastolic pressure was noted. All patients received adequate intravenous fluid replacement (average, 58 ± 16 mL/kg) to support blood pressure. In one patient, with a particularly large paraesophageal hernia, profound hypotension (40/25 mm Hg) developed during the mediastinal phase of the procedure, and this patient required α-adrenergic support followed by laparotomy to eliminate a surgical cause (none found). Conclusions: Although it is a tremendous advance for patients, laparoscopic Nissen fundoplication can be associated with a significant reduction in cardiac output and blood pressure. Surgeons and anesthesiologists must be alert to changes reflecting these decreases during procedures, which violate both the peritoneal cavity and the mediastinum. We propose careful hemodynamic monitoring during these procedures, especially in patients with coronary artery disease or significant left ventricular dysfunction.
|Original language||English (US)|
|Number of pages||8|
|Journal||Journal of Laparoendoscopic and Advanced Surgical Techniques - Part A|
|State||Published - Jun 1 2003|
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