Cytopathology of chondromyxoid fibroma: a case series and review of the literature

Sintawat Wangsiricharoen, Paul E. Wakely, Momin T. Siddiqui, Syed Z. Ali

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Introduction: Chondromyxoid fibroma is a rare bone tumor characterized by immature myxoid mesenchymal tissue showing early primitive cartilaginous differentiation. There have been limited case reports describing the cytologic features of chondromyxoid fibroma. Herein, we reported cytologic features of chondromyxoid fibroma on fine-needle aspiration (FNA). Materials and methods: We performed a retrospective search in our cytopathology and surgical pathology database for cases diagnosed as chondromyxoid fibroma that had corresponding cytology specimens from three medical institutions. All available cytopathology specimens were reviewed. Results: Eight cases were retrieved from patients aged 16-77 years (mean, 51 years), and M:F ratio of 1.7:1. Seven tumors (88%) were primary, and most (62%) occurred in flat bones. Cytologic diagnoses were made in 6 cases with cytologic slides not available to review in 1 case. All cases showed metachromatic matrix in the background, while hyaline cartilage fragments were absent. All cases had two cell populations comprising oval to round cells and stellate to spindle cells. The spindle to stellate cells were more commonly embedded in matrix material. Moderate atypia (hyperchromasia and moderate anisonucleosis) was present in 4 cases (80%), while no mitotic figure was present in all cases. Conclusions: Our study highlights common cytologic features of chondromyxoid fibroma, including the presence of the spindle or stellate cells embedded in matrix material. Hyaline cartilage is uncommon and, if present, diagnostic considerations should include enchondroma or low-grade chondrosarcoma. A specific cytologic diagnosis primarily using FNA samples can be challenging but possible when evaluated in conjunction with clinical and radiologic data.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)366-381
Number of pages16
JournalJournal of the American Society of Cytopathology
Issue number4
StatePublished - Jul 1 2021


  • Bone tumor
  • Cartilage lesion
  • Chondromyxoid fibroma
  • Cytopathology
  • Fine-needle aspiration

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pathology and Forensic Medicine


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