Cyclooxygenase-2 is a target of KRASD12, which facilitates the outgrowth of murine C26 colorectal liver metastases

Niels Smakman, Onno Kranenburg, Jan M. Vogten, Alexander L A Bloemendaal, Paul Van Diest, Inne H M Borel Rinkes

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

23 Scopus citations


Purpose: Mutational activation of the KRAS oncogene and overexpression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) contribute to colorectal carcinoma (CRC) development, but the relationship between these two events is unclear. This study was designed to clarify that relationship and to assess the contribution of KRAS-dependent COX-2 to the seeding of CRC cells in the liver and to their outgrowth as liver metastases in an experimental mouse model. Experimental Design: The effect of RNA interference-mediated KRAS knockdown on COX-2 expression and activity was tested in murine C26 CRC cells. The contribution of KRAS-dependent COX-2 to early metastatic tumor cell seeding (by intravital microscopy) and outgrowth of metastases in the liver (by bioluminescence imaging) was studied by using parecoxib, a novel and highly selective liver-activated COX-2 inhibitor. Intratumoral cell proliferation, apoptosis, and tumor-associated angiogenesis were assessed by immunohistochemistry on liver tissue sections. Results: Stable knockdown of mutant KRASD12 in murine C26 CRC cells by RNA interference lead to a dramatic reduction of COX-2 synthesis and prostaglandin E2 production. Inhibition of host or tumor cell COX-2 activity had no effect on early metastatic cell seeding in the liver but greatly reduced intrahepatic tumor cell proliferation and the rate of liver metastasis outgrowth. COX-2 inhibition had no effect on early tumor vascularization or on tumor cell apoptosis. Conclusions: The high levels of COX-2 enzyme and prostaglandin production in C26 CRC cells are primarily caused by the presence of endogenous mutant KRASD12. Furthermore, COX-2 inhibition affects the tumoral rather than the vascular compartment during the early stages of C26 liver metastasis outgrowth.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)41-48
Number of pages8
JournalClinical Cancer Research
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jan 1 2005
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Cancer Research
  • Oncology


Dive into the research topics of 'Cyclooxygenase-2 is a target of KRASD12, which facilitates the outgrowth of murine C26 colorectal liver metastases'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this