Current and emerging treatment options for castration-resistant prostate cancer: A focus on immunotherapy

Winald R. Gerritsen, Padmanee Sharma

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

14 Scopus citations


Background Castration-resistant prostate cancer is a disease with limited treatment options. However, the ongoing elucidation of the mechanisms underlying this disease continues to support the development of not only novel agents, but also innovative approaches. Among these therapies, immunotherapy has emerged as a promising strategy. Design This review article summarizes the most recent data from investigations of immunotherapies in castrationresistant prostate cancer (literature and congress searches current as of August 2011). Results Immunotherapeutic strategies such as passive immunization, vaccines, and particularly checkpoint blockade have demonstrated some efficacy as single agents. Elucidation of effective combinations of agents and drug regimens is ongoing but will require continued careful investigation, including the standardization of surrogate endpoints in clinical trials. Conclusions It is hypothesized that the combination of immunotherapeutic agents with traditional and novel chemotherapeutics will potentiate the efficacy of the chemotherapeutics while maintaining manageable toxicity.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)25-35
Number of pages11
JournalJournal of Clinical Immunology
Issue number1
StatePublished - Feb 2012
Externally publishedYes


  • Biochemotherapy
  • Castration-resistant prostate cancer
  • Chemotherapy
  • Hormone-refractory prostate cancer
  • Immunotherapy

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Immunology and Allergy
  • Immunology


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