Cross-informant agreement on child and adolescent withdrawn behavior: A latent class approach

David H. Rubin, Robert R. Althoff, John T. Walkup, James J. Hudziak

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

13 Scopus citations


Withdrawn behavior (WB) relates to many developmental outcomes, including pervasive developmental disorders, anxiety, depression, psychosis, personality disorders and suicide. No study has compared the latent profiles of different informants' reports on WB. This study uses multi-informant latent class analyses (LCA) of the child behavior checklist (CBCL), teacher report form (TRF) and youth self-report (YSR) to examine phenotypic variance in WB. LCA was applied to the CBCL, TRF and YSR of 2,031 youth (ages 6-18); of which 276 children were clinically-referred. A 4-class solution for the CBCL and 3-class solutions for the YSR and TRF were optimal. The CBCL yielded low symptoms, predominantly shy or secretive moderate symptoms, and all symptoms classes. The TRF lacked the moderate - secretive class, and the YSR lacked the moderate - shy class. Agreement was low. LCA shows similar structure of withdrawn behavior across informants but characterizations of moderate WB vary.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)361-369
Number of pages9
JournalChild Psychiatry and Human Development
Issue number3
StatePublished - Jun 2013
Externally publishedYes


  • Child behavior checklist
  • Social withdrawal
  • Teacher's report form
  • Withdrawn behavior
  • Youth self-report

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health
  • Psychiatry and Mental health
  • Developmental and Educational Psychology
  • Medicine(all)


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