Critical Incident Stress Management (CISM): A statistical review of the literature

George S. Everly, Raymond B. Flannery, Victoria A. Eyler

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

63 Scopus citations


Crisis intervention has emerged over the last 50 years as a proven method for the provision of urgent psychological support in the wake of a critical incident or traumatic event. The history of crisis intervention is replete with singular, time-limited interventions. As crisis intervention has evolved, more sophisticated multicomponent crisis intervention systems have emerged. As they have appeared in the extant empirically-based literature, their results have proven promising. A previously published paper narratively reviewed the Critical Incident Stress Management (CISM) model of multi-component crisis intervention. The purpose of this paper was to offer a statistical review of CISM as an integrated multicomponent crisis intervention system. Using the methodology of meta-analysis, a review of eight CISM investigations revealed a Cohen's d of 3.11. A fail-safe number of 792 was similarly obtained.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)171-182
Number of pages12
JournalPsychiatric Quarterly
Issue number3
StatePublished - Dec 1 2002


  • CISM
  • Crisis intervention
  • Critical Incident Stress Management
  • Meta-analysis

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Psychiatry and Mental health


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