Cost-effectiveness of live attenuated influenza vaccine versus inactivated influenza vaccine among children aged 24-59 months in the United States

Bryan R. Luce, Kristin L. Nichol, Robert B. Belshe, Kevin D. Frick, Su Xia Li, Audra Boscoe, Matthew D. Rousculp, Parthiv J. Mahadevia

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

55 Scopus citations


Background: The US Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) recently expanded the influenza vaccine recommendation to include children 24-59 months of age. In a large head-to-head randomized controlled trial, live attenuated influenza vaccine, trivalent (LAIV) demonstrated a 54% relative reduction in culture-confirmed influenza illness compared with trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine (TIV) among children aged 24-59 months. Objective: To evaluate the relative cost and benefit between two influenza vaccines (LAIV and TIV) for healthy children 24-59 months of age. Methods: Using patient-level data from the clinical trial supplemented with cost data from published literature, we modeled the cost-effectiveness of these two vaccines. Effectiveness was measured in quality-adjusted life years (QALY) and cases of influenza avoided. The analysis used the societal perspective. Results: Due to its higher acquisition cost, LAIV increased vaccination costs by $7.72 per child compared with TIV. However, compared with TIV, LAIV reduced the number of influenza illness cases and lowered the subsequent healthcare use of children and productivity losses of parents. The estimated offsets in direct and indirect costs saved $15.80 and $37.72 per vaccinated child, respectively. LAIV had a net total cost savings of $45.80 per child relative to TIV. One-way and probabilistic sensitivity analyses indicated that the model was robust across a wide range of relative vaccine efficacy and cost estimates. Conclusions: Due to its increased relative vaccine efficacy over TIV, LAIV reduced the burden of influenza and lowered both direct health care and societal costs among children 24-59 months of age.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)2841-2848
Number of pages8
Issue number23
StatePublished - Jun 2 2008


  • Children
  • Cost-effectiveness
  • Influenza
  • Influenza vaccine
  • Live attenuated influenza vaccine, trivalent (LAIV)
  • Trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine (TIV)

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Molecular Medicine
  • Immunology and Microbiology(all)
  • veterinary(all)
  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health
  • Infectious Diseases


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