In the review period, limitations of individual Placido disk-based topography systems have been studied and new principles, such as raster photogrammetry, pancorneal slit topography, laser holographic interferometry, and confocal laser scanning topography, have been introduced for laboratory or clinical work. Both Fourier analysis and Zernike decomposition of topographic height data seem to be powerful new tools for cross-sectional analysis of complex topographic corneal images, such as after cataract surgery, penetrating keratoplasty, and refractive surgery, as well as for longitudinal studies of corneal changes, such as in schoolchildren. Subdividing into rational optical components may improve consistency and standardization of topography data from different systems. Topography-based flying-spot-mode excimer laser photoablation after Zernike decomposition of topography height data has been proposed for correction of irregular corneal astigmatism. Topography-based central power measurements are of increasing value for intraocular lens power calculation before cataract surgery in eyes with irregular corneal surfaces, such as in keratoconus or after refractive surgery procedures. Quantitative and qualitative classification of corneal topography maps after corneal transplantation following conventional mechanical and nonmechanical trephination or after refractive surgery may lead to a better understanding of impaired visual acuity despite a clear graft or despite significantly reduced ametropia or corneal astigmatism.
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