Conventional and Novel Lipid Measures and Risk of Peripheral Artery Disease

Minghao Kou, Ning Ding, Shoshana H. Ballew, Maya J. Salameh, Seth S. Martin, Elizabeth Selvin, Gerardo Heiss, Christie M. Ballantyne, Kunihiro Matsushita, Ron C. Hoogeveen

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Scopus citations


Objective: The aim of this study was to comprehensively assess the association of multiple lipid measures with incident peripheral artery disease (PAD). Approach and Results: We used Cox proportional hazards models to characterize the associations of each of the fasting lipid measures (total cholesterol, LDL-C [low-density lipoprotein cholesterol], HDL-C [high-density lipoprotein cholesterol], triglycerides, RLP-C [remnant lipoprotein cholesterol], LDL-TG [LDL-triglycerides], sdLDL-C [small dense LDL-C], and Apo-E-HDL [Apo-E-containing HDL-C]) with incident PAD identified by pertinent International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM) hospital discharge codes (eg, 440.2) among 8330 Black and White ARIC (Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities) participants (mean age 62.8 [SD 5.6] years) free of PAD at baseline (1996-1998) through 2015. Since lipid traits are biologically correlated to each other, we also conducted principal component analysis to identify underlying components for PAD risk. There were 246 incident PAD cases with a median follow-up of 17 years. After accounting for potential confounders, the following lipid measures were significantly associated with PAD (hazard ratio per 1-SD increment [decrement for HDL-C and Apo-E-HDL]): triglycerides, 1.21 (95% CI, 1.08-1.36); RLP-C, 1.18 (1.08-1.29); LDL-TG, 1.18 (1.05-1.33); HDL-C, 1.39 (1.16-1.67); and Apo-E-HDL, 1.27 (1.07-1.51). The principal component analysis identified 3 components (1: mainly loaded by triglycerides, RLP-C, LDL-TG, and sdLDL-C; 2: by HDL-C and Apo-E-HDL; and 3: by LDL-C and RLP-C). Components 1 and 2 showed independent associations with incident PAD. Conclusions: Triglyceride-related and HDL-related lipids were independently associated with incident PAD, which has implications on preventive strategies for PAD. However, none of the novel lipid measures outperformed conventional ones.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1229-1238
Number of pages10
JournalArteriosclerosis, thrombosis, and vascular biology
Issue number3
StatePublished - Mar 1 2021


  • cholesterol
  • lipids
  • lipoproteins
  • peripheral artery disease
  • triglycerides

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine


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