Contemporary Outcomes for Open Infrainguinal Bypass in the Endovascular Era

Thomas Reifsnyder, Isibor J. Arhuidese, Caitlin W. Hicks, Tammam Obeid, Karen E.M. Massada, Alaa Khaled, Umair Qazi, Mahmoud B. Malas

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

17 Scopus citations


Background The role of infrainguinal bypasses in this era of increasing endovascular interventions remains the subject of significant debate. In this study, we evaluate contemporary long-term outcomes of lower-extremity open revascularization for peripheral arterial disease (PAD). Methods We evaluated all patients who underwent infrainguinal bypass with autogenous vein conduits for claudication or critical limb ischemia in our institution between January 1st, 2007 and July 31st, 2014. Kaplan-Meier and Cox regression analyses were used to evaluate graft failure and identify its predictors. Outcomes were defined per the Society for Vascular Surgery standards. Results There were 428 autogenous vein grafts (femoro-popliteal: 32%, femoro-tibial: 39%, popliteo-tibial: 27%, and tibio-tibial: 2%) placed in 368 patients (mean age of 67 ± 11.4 years). Most patients were male (59%), white (73%), and presented with critical limb ischemia (81%). Sixty-five cases (15%) were redo bypasses. Arm veins and spliced vein conduits were used in 15% and 14% of cases, respectively. Primary patency at 1, 3, and 5 years was 66%, 59%, and 55%, respectively. Primary-assisted patency was 78%, 69%, and 64% at 1, 3, and 5 years, respectively. Secondary patency was 88%, 84%, and 82% at 1, 3, and 5 years, respectively. Patency was higher for grafts harvested from the lower versus upper extremities and for proximal versus distal bypass (all P < 0.05). Limb salvage rate was 88% after a mean follow-up of 2 ± 1.8 years. Significant predictors of graft failure were younger age, diabetes mellitus, and hyperlipidemia (all P < 0.05). Conclusions In this contemporary cohort of patients, we have demonstrated that infrainguinal bypass for lower-extremity revascularization has good long-term outcomes in patients with symptomatic PAD. Patency and limb salvage rates are optimized with careful selection of autogenous conduits, close monitoring of high-risk groups and management of comorbidities.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)52-58
Number of pages7
JournalAnnals of Vascular Surgery
StatePublished - Jan 1 2016

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Surgery
  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine


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