Neurocysticercosis, an infection of the central nervous system with the larval stage of the cestode Taenia solium, is common in developing countries but its occurrence and management in allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) has not been reported previously, to our knowledge. We report the case of an immigrant female patient who underwent a matched-related allogeneic HSCT for acute lymphoblastic leukemia and was incidentally found to have a solitary viable neurocysticercosis lesion. However, despite severe immunosuppression, the size of the cyst did not increase. More importantly, restoration of the immune system did not induce significant inflammation or seizures. Subsequent follow-up demonstrated complete resolution of the neurocysticercosis lesion. Thus, in the setting of HSCT, an asymptomatic patient with a single neurocysticercosis lesion was successfully managed without the use of anthelmintics, steroids, or anti-epileptics.
- Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation
- Taenia solium
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Infectious Diseases