Confirmatory tests for drugs in the workplace by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry

Bruce A. Goldberger, Edward J. Cone

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

56 Scopus citations


The Mandatory Guidelines for Federal Workplace Drug Testing Programs require the use of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) for the confirmation of presumptive positive urine specimens. This review focuses upon GC-MS methods developed specifically for forensic confirmation of amphetamine, methamphetamine, 11-nor-Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol-9-carboxylic acid (THC-acid), benzoylecgonine, morphine, codeine and phencyclidine in urine for purposes of workplace drug testing. In addition, current laboratory issues pertaining to each drug class are reviewed. Generally, drug assays utilized either liquid-liquid or solid-phase extraction methods, derivatization if necessary, and GC-MS detection operating in the selected ion monitoring mode or by full scan acquisition.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)73-86
Number of pages14
JournalJournal of Chromatography A
Issue number1-2
StatePublished - Jul 15 1994

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Analytical Chemistry
  • Biochemistry
  • Organic Chemistry


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