Computational study of computed tomography contrast gradients in models of stenosed coronary arteries

Parastou Eslami, Jung Hee Seo, Amir Ali Rahsepar, Richard George, Albert C. Lardo, Rajat Mittal

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

6 Scopus citations


Recent computed tomography coronary angiography (CCTA) studies have noted higher transluminal contrast agent gradients in arteries with stenotic lesions, but the physical mechanism responsible for these gradients is not clear. We use computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling coupled with contrast agent dispersion to investigate the mechanism for these gradients. Simulations of blood flow and contrast agent dispersion in models of coronary artery are carried out for both steady and pulsatile flows, and axi-symmetric stenoses of severities varying from 0% (unobstructed) to 80% are considered. Simulations show the presence of measurable gradients with magnitudes that increase monotonically with stenotic severity when other parameters are held fixed. The computational results enable us to examine and validate the hypothesis that transluminal contrast gradients (TCG) are generated due to the advection of the contrast bolus with time-varying contrast concentration that appears at the coronary ostium. Since the advection of the bolus is determined by the flow velocity in the artery, the magnitude of the gradient, therefore, encodes the coronary flow velocity. The correlation between the flow rate estimated from TCG and the actual flow rate in the computational model of a physiologically realistic coronary artery is 96% with a R2 value of 0.98. The mathematical formulae connecting TCG to flow velocity derived here represent a novel and potentially powerful approach for noninvasive estimation of coronary flow velocity from CT angiography.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number091002
JournalJournal of Biomechanical Engineering
Issue number9
StatePublished - Sep 1 2015


  • Computational fluid dynamics
  • Coronary artery disease
  • Coronary computed tomography angiography
  • Fractional flow reserve

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biomedical Engineering
  • Physiology (medical)


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