Complex graphemes as functional spelling units: Evidence from acquired dysgraphia

M. J. Tainturier, B. C. Rapp

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

41 Scopus citations


The visual word recognition literature suggests that complex graphemes (or digraphs) such as CK function as units. This proposal has also been put forward in recent spelling models (Houghton and Zorzi, 2003) and the study we report on here provides initial empirical support for the claim. We performed detailed analyses of the spelling performance of two brain-damaged individuals with graphemic buffer deficits. Results revealed that (a) FM and BWN made fewer errors on consonant digraphs (e.g., CK) than on matched controls clusters (e.g., CR) and (b) BWN produced more transposition errors on vowel digraphs than on control clusters. These results support the view that digraphs are represented as units in which the relative order of constituent letters is encoded.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)122-131
Number of pages10
Issue number2
StatePublished - Apr 2004

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Arts and Humanities (miscellaneous)
  • Clinical Neurology


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