Complementary feeding with cow's milk alters sleeping metabolic rate in breast-fed infants

Hinke Haisma, Jonathan C K Wells, W. Andrew Coward, Danton Duro Filho, Cesar G. Victora, Roel J. Vonk, Antony Wright, G. Henk Visser

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

10 Scopus citations


Although it is widely accepted that energy expenditure in infants is a function of feeding pattern, the mechanism behind this is not well understood. The objectives of this observational study were as follows: 1) to compare minimal observable energy expenditure (MOEE) between 2 subgroups of breast-fed infants, a BM group in which breast milk was the only source of milk and a BCM group given cow's milk in addition to breast milk; and 2) to identify potential mediators of a feeding pattern effect. For this purpose, infants were classified by feeding group on the basis of a mother's recall. Respiration calorimetry was used to measure MOEE in 62 infants (n = 35 BM, n = 27 BCM) aged 8.7 mo in Pelotas, southern Brazil. Breast-milk intake was measured using deuterium oxide, complementary food intake by 1-d food weighing, total energy expenditure and total body water using doubly labeled water; anthropometric indices were calculated. MOEE was 1672 ± 175 kJ/d in BM compared with 1858 ± 210 kJ/d in BCM infants (P <0.001). Mass-specific MOEE was 201 ± 24.6 and 216 ± 31.9 kJ/(kg · d) in BM and BCM infants, respectively (P = 0.041). MOEE (kJ/d) was mediated by protein intake and fat-free mass (R 2 = 41.4%). We conclude that complementary feeding with cow's milk alters the sleeping metabolic rate in breast-fed infants. These findings deserve attention in relation to "metabolic programming" and the development of obesity later in life.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1889-1895
Number of pages7
JournalJournal of Nutrition
Issue number8
StatePublished - Aug 2005
Externally publishedYes


  • Breast milk
  • Cow's milk
  • Infants
  • Minimal observable energy expenditure
  • Sleeping metabolic rate

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine (miscellaneous)
  • Food Science


Dive into the research topics of 'Complementary feeding with cow's milk alters sleeping metabolic rate in breast-fed infants'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this