Compartment-based reconstruction of 3D acquisition-weighted 31P cardiac magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging at 7 T: A reproducibility study

Andrew Tyler, Jane Ellis, Justin Y.C. Lau, Jack J. Miller, Paul A. Bottomley, Christopher T. Rodgers, Damian J. Tyler, Ladislav Valkovič

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Even at 7 T, cardiac 31P magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging (MRSI) is fundamentally limited by low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), leading to long scan times and poor temporal and spatial resolutions. Compartment-based reconstruction algorithms such as magnetic resonance spectroscopy with linear algebraic modeling (SLAM) and spectral localization by imaging (SLIM) may improve SNR or reduce scan time without changes to acquisition. Here, we compare the repeatability and SNR performance of these compartment-based methods, applied to three different acquisition schemes at 7 T. Twelve healthy volunteers were scanned twice. Each scan session consisted of a 6.5-min 3D acquisition-weighted (AW) cardiac 31P phase encode-based MRSI acquisition and two 6.5-min truncated k-space acquisitions with increased averaging (4 × 4 × 4 central k-space phase encodes and fractional SLAM [fSLAM] optimized k-space phase encodes). Spectra were reconstructed using (i) AW Fourier reconstruction; (ii) AW SLAM; (iii) AW SLIM; (iv) 4 × 4 × 4 SLAM; (v) 4 × 4 × 4 SLIM; and (vi) fSLAM acquisition–reconstruction combinations. The phosphocreatine-to-adenosine triphosphate (PCr/ATP) ratio, the PCr SNR, and spatial response functions were computed, in addition to coefficients of reproducibility and variability. Using the compartment-based reconstruction algorithms with the AW 31P acquisition resulted in a significant increase in SNR compared with previously published Fourier-based MRSI reconstruction methods while maintaining the measured PCr/ATP ratio and improving interscan reproducibility. The alternative acquisition strategies with truncated k-space performed no better than the common AW approach. Compartment-based spectroscopy approaches provide an attractive reconstruction method for cardiac 31P spectroscopy at 7 T, improving reproducibility and SNR without the need for a dedicated k-space sampling strategy.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article numbere4950
JournalNMR in biomedicine
Issue number9
StatePublished - Sep 2023


  • 7 T
  • P
  • SLAM
  • SLIM
  • cardiac
  • spectroscopy

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Molecular Medicine
  • Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging
  • Spectroscopy


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