Comparison of gating methods for the real-time analysis of left ventricular function in nonimaging blood pool studies

Brian B. Beard, James R. Stewart, Richard G. Shiavi, Christine H. Lorenz

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Scopus citations


Background Gating methods developed for electrocardiographic-triggered radionuclide ventriculography are being used with nonimaging detectors. These methods have not been compared on the basis of their real-time performance or suitability for determination of load-independent indexes of left ventricular function. This work evaluated the relative merits of different gating methods for nonimaging radionuclude ventriculographic studies, with particular emphasis on their suitability for real-time measurements and the determination of pressure-volume loops. Methods and Results A computer model was used to investigate the relative accuracy of forward gating, backward gating, and phase-mode gating. The durations of simulated left ventricular time-activity curves were randomly varied. Three acquisition parameters were considered: frame rate, acceptance window, and sample size. Twenty-five studies were performed for each combination of acquisition parameters. Hemodynamic and shape parameters from each study were compared with reference parameters derived directly from the random time-activity curves. Backward gating produced the largest errors under all conditions. For both forward gating and phase-mode gating, ejection fraction was underestimated and time to end systole and normalized peak ejection rate were overestimated. For the hemodynamic parameters, forward gating was marginally superior to phase-mode gating. The mean difference in errors between forward and phase-mode gating was 1.47% (SD 2.78%). However, for root mean square shape error, forward gating was several times worse in every case and seven times worse than phase-mode gating on average. Conclusions Both forward and phase-mode gating are suitable for real-time hemodynamic measurements by nonimaging techniques. The small statistical difference between the methods is not clinically significant. The true shape of the time-activity curve is maintained most accurately by phase-mode gating.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)405-412
Number of pages8
JournalJournal of Nuclear Cardiology
Issue number5
StatePublished - 1995
Externally publishedYes


  • comparative study
  • computer simulation
  • gated blood pool imaging
  • left ventricular function

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine
  • Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging


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