Comparative mortality according to peripheral artery disease and coronary heart disease/stroke in the United States

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Background and aims: A recent trial reported that patients with peripheral artery disease (PAD) without coronary heart disease or stroke (CHD/stroke) had worse prognosis than those with CHD/stroke without PAD. However, community-based data are lacking. The purpose of this study was to compare mortality according to the status of PAD and CHD/stroke in the general population. Methods: In 6780 participants (aged ≥40 years) from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys 1999–2004, we compared mortality risk according to PAD (ankle-brachial index ≤0.9) and CHD/stroke (self-report) at baseline using the Kaplan-Meier method and multivariable Cox models accounting for sampling weights. Results: The prevalence of having both PAD and CHD/stroke was 1.6%. The prevalence of PAD without CHD/stroke and CHD/stroke without PAD was 4.1% and 8.5%, respectively (85.8% without PAD or CHD/stroke). Over a median follow-up of 12.8 years, 21.2% died. Individuals with both PAD and CHD/stroke had the worst survival (25.5% at 12 years). Those with PAD without CHD/stroke had the second worst prognosis (47.7%), followed by those with CHD/stroke without PAD (53.2%) and those without CHD/stroke or PAD (87.2%). Adjusted hazard ratio of mortality was 2.70 (95% CI, 2.07–3.53) for PAD with CHD/stroke, 1.81 (1.54–2.12) in CHD/stroke without PAD, and 1.68 (1.35–2.08) in PAD without CHD/stroke vs. no CHD/stroke or PAD. Conclusions: In the US adults, PAD contributed to increased mortality in persons with and without CHD/stroke. The prognosis of PAD without CHD/stroke was no better than that of CHD/stroke without PAD. These results suggest the importance of recognizing the presence of PAD in the community.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)57-62
Number of pages6
StatePublished - Aug 2022


  • Coronary heart disease
  • Epidemiology
  • Mortality
  • Peripheral artery disease
  • Stroke

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine


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