Comparative craniofacial variation in Navajo Indians and North American Caucasians

G. S. Phipps, R. Z. German, R. J. Smith

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

3 Scopus citations


Landmarks digitized from lateral cephalometric radiographs of 107 Navajo Indians between 10 and 12 years of age were analyzed to determine coefficients of variation or standard deviations for 38 cephalometric measurements. These values were compared with the same measures of variation for identical measurements on North American whites derived from the Michigan and Philadelphia Growth Studies. For the majority of variables, there were no differences between groups. Variation for the genetically and environmentally isolated Navajo Indians was the same as that of the highly diverse Caucasian samples. However, measurements of upper, lower, and total anterior facial height (N-ANS, ANS-Me, and N-Me, respectively) indicate that these features are substantially less variable in Navajo Indians relative to the Michigan and Philadelphia populations.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)145-154
Number of pages10
JournalAmerican Journal of Physical Anthropology
Issue number2
StatePublished - 1988
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Agricultural and Biological Sciences (miscellaneous)
  • Anthropology


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