Communication over a large distance: Enhancers and insulators

Vladimir A. Bondarenko, Ye V. Liu, Yong I. Jiang, Vasily M. Studitsky

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

52 Scopus citations


Enhancers are regulatory DNA sequences that can work over a large distance. Efficient enhancer action over a distance clearly requires special mechanisms for facilitating communication between the enhancer and its target. While the chromatin looping model can explain the majority of the observations, some recent experimental findings suggest that a chromatin scanning mechanism is used to establish the loop. These new findings help to understand the mechanism of action of the elements that can prevent enhancer-promoter communication (insulators).

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)241-251
Number of pages11
JournalBiochemistry and Cell Biology
Issue number3
StatePublished - Jun 1 2003


  • Chromatin
  • Enhancers
  • Insulators
  • Transcription activation

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biochemistry
  • Molecular Biology
  • Cell Biology


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