Combined treatment: Antifungal drugs with antibodies, cytokines or drugs

D. A. Stevens, B. J. Kullberg, E. Brummer, A. Casadevall, M. G. Netea, A. M. Sugar

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

36 Scopus citations


To improve present results with antifungal drugs, modulation of the host immune response is being explored. Human phagocytes of various lineages work cooperatively in vitro with antifungal drugs to inhibit or kill fungal pathogens, and this activity is augmented by several recombinant cytokines. Monoclonal antibodies against the cryptococcal capsule have been shown to act as an adjunct in enhancing the outcome of cryptococcosis in animal models. This approach is now being pursued in systematic clinical trials. In experimental candidiasis, several manipulations of the immune system, via administration of cytokines, gene deletion or antibodies to cytokines, have been shown to significantly affect survival and fungal clearance in vivo. This approach has already been demonstrated to be of benefit with recombinant human granulocyte-colony stimulating factor adjunct therapy of human candidiasis. Combining antifungal drugs of different classes may enhance their therapeutic effect.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)305-315
Number of pages11
JournalMedical mycology
StatePublished - 2000
Externally publishedYes


  • Antifungal drugs
  • Combination chemotherapy
  • Immunomodulation

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Infectious Diseases


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