Purpose: Preclinical studies suggest PARP inhibition (PARPi) induces immunostimulatory micromilieu in ovarian cancer thus complementing activity of immune checkpoint blockade. We conducted a phase II trial of PARPi olaparib and anti–PD-L1 durvalumab and collected paired fresh core biopsies and blood samples to test this hypothesis. Patients and Methods: In a single-center, proof-of-concept phase II study, we enrolled women aged ≥18 with recurrent ovarian cancer. All patients were immune checkpoint inhibitor–nave and had measurable disease per RECISTv1.1, ECOG performance status 0–2, and adequate organ and marrow function. Patients received olaparib 300 mg twice daily and durvalumab 1,500 mg intravenously every 4 weeks until disease progression, unacceptable toxicity, or withdrawal of consent. Primary endpoint was overall response rate (ORR). Secondary objectives were safety and progression-free survival (PFS). Translational objectives included biomarker evaluation for relationships with clinical response and immunomodulatory effects by treatment. Results: Thirty-five patients with ovarian cancer [median, four prior therapies (IQR, 2–5.5), predominantly platinum-resistant (86%), BRCA wild-type (77%)] received at least one full cycle of treatment. ORR was 14% [5/35; 95% confidence interval (CI), 4.8%–30.3%]. Disease control rate (PR+SD) was 71% (25/35; 95% CI, 53.7%–85.4%). Treatment enhanced IFNg and CXCL9/CXCL10 expression, systemic IFNg/TNFa production, and tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes, indicating an immunostimulatory environment. Increased IFNg production was associated with improved PFS [HR, 0.37 (95% CI, 0.16–0.87), P = 0.023], while elevated VEGFR3 levels were associated with worse PFS (HR, 3.22 (95% CI, 1.23–8.40), P = 0.017]. Conclusions: The PARPi and anti–PD-L1 combination showed modest clinical activity in recurrent ovarian cancer. Our correlative study results suggest immunomodulatory effects by olaparib/ durvalumab in patients and indicate that VEGF/VEGFR pathway blockade would be necessary for improved efficacy of the combination.
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