CMR and CT of the Patient With Cardiac Devices: Safety, Efficacy, and Optimization Strategies

Rolf Symons, Stefan L. Zimmerman, David A. Bluemke

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

2 Scopus citations


Cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR)and cardiac CT (CCT)have evolved into powerful diagnostic tools in the evaluation of patients with cardiovascular diseases. However, the use of these imaging techniques poses potential safety concerns for patients with implanted cardiac devices. These concerns result from the potential for electromagnetic interaction between the device and the CMR field or CCT x-ray radiation, which could lead to device heating, malfunction, or dislocation. Additionally, the presence of cardiac devices may induce significant image artifacts due to local magnetic field inhomogeneities (CMR)or photon starvation/beam hardening (CCT). In this review summarizes the safety issues regarding imaging in patients with cardiac devices. Optimization strategies to mitigate image artifacts and to improve imaging efficacy are discussed.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)890-903
Number of pages14
JournalJACC: Cardiovascular Imaging
Issue number5
StatePublished - May 2019


  • cardiac computed tomography
  • cardiac devices
  • cardiac magnetic resonance
  • image artifacts
  • imaging safety

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging
  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine


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