Clinical Trials Investigating Immune Checkpoint Blockade in Glioblastoma

Russell Maxwell, Christopher M. Jackson, Michael Lim

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

43 Scopus citations


Immune checkpoint inhibitors have changed the landscape of cancer immunotherapy and are being integrated into the standard of care for a variety of solid and hematologic malignancies. Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most common primary malignant brain tumor in adults and carries a grave prognosis despite advances in surgical resection, chemotherapy, and radiation therapy. Implementing immunotherapy for brain tumors mandates additional considerations due to the unique structural and immunologic milieu of the central nervous system (CNS). Nevertheless, strong data from preclinical studies have driven clinical trials of immune checkpoint blockade for newly diagnosed and recurrent GBM. The focus of this review is to discuss the ongoing clinical trials of checkpoint inhibitors in GBM and review the immunologic rationale for ongoing and future trial designs.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number51
JournalCurrent treatment options in oncology
Issue number8
StatePublished - Aug 1 2017


  • CTLA-4
  • Glioblastoma
  • Immune checkpoint
  • Malignant glioma
  • PD-1
  • PD-L1

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Oncology
  • Pharmacology (medical)


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