Clinical Risk Assessment in the Antiphospholipid Syndrome: Current Landscape and Emerging Biomarkers

Shruti Chaturvedi, Keith R. McCrae

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

7 Scopus citations


Purpose of Review: Laboratory criteria for the classification of antiphospholipid syndrome include the detection of a lupus anticoagulant and/or anticardiolipin and anti-β2-glycoprotein I antibodies. However, the majority of patients who test positive in these assays do not have thrombosis. Current risk-stratification tools are largely limited to the antiphospholipid antibody profile and traditional thrombotic risk factors. Recent Findings: Novel biomarkers that correlate with disease activity and potentially provide insight into future clinical events include domain 1 specific anti-β2GPI antibodies, antibodies to other phospholipids or phospholipid/protein antigens (such as anti-PS/PT), and functional/biological assays such as thrombin generation, complement activation, levels of circulating microparticles, and annexin A5 resistance. Clinical risk scores may also have value in predicting clinical events. Summary: Biomarkers that predict thrombosis risk in patients with antiphospholipid antibodies have been long sought, and several biomarkers have been proposed. Ultimately, integration of biomarkers with established assays and clinical characteristics may offer the best chance of identifying patients at highest risk of APS-related complications.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number43
JournalCurrent rheumatology reports
Issue number7
StatePublished - Jul 1 2017
Externally publishedYes


  • Antiphospholipid antibodies
  • Biomarker
  • Complement
  • Lupus anticoagulant
  • Thrombosis
  • β-2-Glycoprotein-I

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Rheumatology


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