Fifty-eight patients with human immunodeficiency virus infection were analyzed for clinical manifestations and potential risk factors for Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection by use of casecontrol methodology. Most had AIDS. Of73 episodes of P. aeruginosa infection, 45 (62%) were bacteremias primarily associated with central venous catheters (16), pneumonia (12), soft tissue (4), or urinary tract infections (4). Twenty-eight episodes (38%) were nonbacteremic, with pneumonia (13), soft tissue infections (6), and sinusitis (4) accounting for the majority of infections. Fifty episodes (68%) were community-acquired. The recurrence rate was 23%. The overall mortality attributable to P. aeruginosa infection was 22%. Central venous and urinary catheter use and steroid therapy were significantly more frequent in cases than controls (P <.05). Thus, P. aeruginosa infection in patients with advanced human immunodeficiency virus disease is often community-acquired and associated with substantial mortality and, in some cases, specific risk factors.
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