Clinical Comparison of Conventional and Mobile Endockscope Videocystoscopy Using an Air or Fluid Medium

Rahul Dutta, Renai Yoon, Roshan M. Patel, Kyle Spradling, Zhamshid Okhunov, William Sohn, Hak J. Lee, Jaime Landman, Ralph V. Clayman

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Objective: To compare conventional videocystoscopy (CVC) with a novel and affordable (approximately $45) mobile cystoscopy system, the Endockscope (ES). We evaluated the ES system using both fluid (Endockscope-Fluid [ES-F]) and air (Endockscope-Air [ES-A]) to fill the bladder in an effort to expand the global range of flexible cystoscopy. Methods: The ES system comprised a portable 1000 lumen LED self-contained cordless light source and a three-dimensional printed adaptor that connects a mobile phone to a flexible fiber-optic cystoscope. Patients undergoing in-office cystoscopic evaluation for either stent removal or bladder cancer surveillance received three examinations: conventional, ES-F, and ES-A cystoscopy. Videos of each examination were recorded and analyzed by expert endoscopists for image quality/resolution, brightness, color quality, sharpness, overall quality, and whether or not they were acceptable for diagnostic purposes. Results: Six of the 10 patients for whom the conventional videos were 100% acceptable for diagnostic purposes were included in our analysis. The conventional videos scored higher on every metric relative to both the ES-F and ES-A videos (p < 0.05). There was no difference between ES-F and ES-A videos on any metric. Fifty-two percent and 44% of the ES-F and ES-A videos, respectively, were considered acceptable for diagnostic purposes (p = 0.384). Conclusions: The ES mobile cystoscopy system may be a reasonable option in settings where electricity, sterile fluid irrigant, or access to CVC equipment is unavailable.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)593-597
Number of pages5
JournalJournal of Endourology
Issue number6
StatePublished - Jun 2017
Externally publishedYes


  • air cystoscopy
  • Endockscope
  • mobile technology

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Urology

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