Clinical and laboratory assessment of cardiovascular risk in children: Guidelines for screening, evaluation, and treatment

Peter O. Kwiterovich

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

18 Scopus citations


The early lesions of atherosclerosis begin in childhood and are related to antecedent cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors. Environmental and genetic factors (eg, diet, obesity, exercise, and certain inherited dyslipidemias) influence progression of such lesions. Identification of youth at risk for atherosclerosis includes an integrated assessment of these predisposing factors. Treatment starts with a diet low in total and saturated fat and cholesterol, use of water-soluble fiber, plant stanols and plant sterols, weight control, and exercise. Drug therapy, for example, with inhibitors of hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA reductase, bile acid sequestrants, and cholesterol absorption inhibitors, can be considered in those with a positive family history of premature CVD and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol >160 mg/dL after dietary and hygienic measures. Candidates for drug therapy often include those with familial hypercholesterolemia, familial combined hyperlipidemia, the metabolic syndrome, polycystic ovarian syndrome, type 1 diabetes, and the nephrotic syndrome. Such dietary and drug therapy appears safe and efficacious. Early identification and treatment of youth with CVD risk factors and dyslipidemia are likely to retard the atherosclerotic process. Optimal detection and treatment of high-risk children either from the general population or from families with premature CVD will require a comprehensive universal screening and evaluation program.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)248-266
Number of pages19
JournalJournal of clinical lipidology
Issue number4
StatePublished - Aug 2008
Externally publishedYes


  • Apolipoproteins
  • Diet
  • Drugs
  • Dyslipidemia
  • Lipids
  • Lipoproteins

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Internal Medicine
  • Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism
  • Nutrition and Dietetics
  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine


Dive into the research topics of 'Clinical and laboratory assessment of cardiovascular risk in children: Guidelines for screening, evaluation, and treatment'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this