Classification of Visual Field Abnormalities in Highly Myopic Eyes without Pathologic Change

Glaucoma Suspects with High Myopia Study Group

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Purpose: To develop a classification system of visual field (VF) abnormalities in highly myopic eyes with and without glaucoma. Design: Secondary analysis of VF data from a longitudinal cohort study. Participants: One thousand eight hundred ninety-three VF tests from 1302 eyes (825 individuals). Methods: All participants underwent VF testing (Humphrey 24-2 Swedish interactive threshold algorithm standard program; Carl Zeiss Meditec) and detailed ophthalmic examination. A comprehensive set of VF defect patterns was defined via observation of the 1893 VF reports, literature review, and consensus meetings. The classification system comprised 4 major types of VF patterns, including normal type, glaucoma-like defects (paracentral defect, nasal step, partial arcuate defect, arcuate defect), high myopia-related defects (enlarged blind spot, vertical step, partial peripheral rim, nonspecific defect), and combined defects (nasal step with enlarged blind spot). A subset (n = 1000) of the VFs was used to evaluate the interobserver and intraobserver agreement and weighted κ values of the classification system by 2 trained readers. The prevalence of various VF patterns and their associated factors were determined. Main Outcome Measures: The classification of VF in highly myopic eyes and its associated risk factors. Results: We found that normal type, glaucoma-like defects, high myopia-related defects, and combined defects accounted for 74.1%, 10.8%, 15.0%, and 0.1% of all unique VF tests, respectively. The interobserver and intraobserver agreements were > 89%, and the corresponding κ values were 0.86 or more between readers. Both glaucoma-like and high myopia-related VF defects were associated with older age (odds ratios [ORs], 1.07 [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.04–1.10; P < 0.001] and 1.06 [95% CI, 1.04–1.10; P < 0.001]) and longer axial length (ORs, 1.65 [95% CI, 1.32–2.07; P < 0.001] and 1.37 [95% CI, 1.11–1.68; P = 0.003]). Longer axial length showed a stronger effect on the prevalence of glaucoma-like VF defects than on the prevalence of high myopia-related VF defects (P = 0.036). Conclusions: We propose a new and reproducible classification system of VF abnormalities for nonpathologic high myopia. Applying a comprehensive classification system will facilitate communication and comparison of findings among studies.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)803-812
Number of pages10
Issue number7
StatePublished - Jul 2022


  • Classification system
  • High myopia
  • Visual field abnormalities

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Ophthalmology


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