CKD and Risk for Hospitalization With Infection: The Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study

Junichi Ishigami, Morgan E. Grams, Alexander R. Chang, Juan J. Carrero, Josef Coresh, Kunihiro Matsushita

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

55 Scopus citations


Background Individuals on dialysis therapy have a high risk for infection, but risk for infection in earlier stages of chronic kidney disease has not been comprehensively described. Study Design Observational cohort study. Setting & Participants 9,697 participants (aged 53-75 years) in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study. Participants were followed up from 1996 to 1998 through 2011. Predictors Estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and urinary albumin-creatinine ratio (ACR). Outcomes Risk for hospitalization with infection and death during or within 30 days of hospitalization with infection. Results During follow-up (median, 13.6 years), there were 2,701 incident hospitalizations with infection (incidence rate, 23.6/1,000 person-years) and 523 infection-related deaths. In multivariable analysis, HRs of incident hospitalization with infection as compared to eGFRs ≥ 90 mL/min/1.73 m2 were 2.55 (95% CI, 1.43-4.55), 1.48 (95% CI, 1.28-1.71), and 1.07 (95% CI, 0.98-1.16) for eGFRs of 15 to 29, 30 to 59, and 60 to 89 mL/min/1.73 m2, respectively. Corresponding HRs were 3.76 (95% CI, 1.48-9.58), 1.62 (95% CI, 1.20-2.19), and 0.99 (95% CI, 0.80-1.21) for infection-related death. Compared to ACRs < 10 mg/g, HRs of incident hospitalization with infection were 2.30 (95% CI, 1.81-2.91), 1.56 (95% CI, 1.36-1.78), and 1.34 (95% CI, 1.20-1.50) for ACRs ≥ 300, 30 to 299, and 10 to 29 mg/g, respectively. Corresponding HRs were 3.44 (95% CI, 2.28-5.19), 1.57 (95% CI, 1.18-2.09), and 1.39 (95% CI, 1.09-1.78) for infection-related death. Results were consistent when separately assessing risk for pneumonia, kidney and urinary tract infections, bloodstream infections, and cellulitis and when taking into account recurrent episodes of infection. Limitations Outcome ascertainment relied on diagnostic codes at time of discharge. Conclusions Increasing provider awareness of chronic kidney disease as a risk factor for infection is needed to reduce infection-related morbidity and mortality.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)752-761
Number of pages10
JournalAmerican Journal of Kidney Diseases
Issue number6
StatePublished - Jun 2017


  • Chronic kidney disease (CKD)
  • albuminuria
  • bacteremia
  • cellulitis
  • chronic kidney failure
  • chronic renal insufficiency
  • glomerular filtration rate (GFR)
  • hospitalization
  • infection
  • infectious disease
  • kidney function
  • pneumonia
  • proteinuria
  • respiratory tract infections
  • urinary tract infections

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Nephrology


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