Cigarette smoking and cervical cancer: Part I: a meta-analysis.

Harry W. Haverkos, Guoxing Soon, Stacey L. Steckley, Wallace Pickworth

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

55 Scopus citations


Cancer of the cervix is the third most common cancer among women worldwide and its etiology is not clearly understood. Human papillomavirus can be found in approximately 95% of cervical cancers, but it does not appear to be necessary or sufficient to induce malignancy. In 1977, Winkelstein suggested that cigarette smoking was a causative factor in the development of cervical cancer. We report a meta-analysis of cigarette smoking and cervical disease and conclude that the data support a role for cigarette smoking as a risk factor for cervical cancer. We propose a multifactorial hypothesis involving a virus-tar interaction as the etiology of cervical cancer.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)67-77
Number of pages11
JournalBiomedicine and Pharmacotherapy
Issue number2
StatePublished - Mar 2003
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pharmacology


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