Chronic kidney disease measures for cardiovascular risk prediction

Yejin Mok, Shoshana H. Ballew, Kunihiro Matsushita

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review


Chronic kidney disease (CKD) affects 15–20% of adults globally and causes various complications, one of the most important being cardiovascular disease (CVD). CKD has been associated with many CVD subtypes, especially severe ones like heart failure, independent of potential confounders such as diabetes and hypertension. There is no consensus in major clinical guidelines as to how to incorporate the two key measures of CKD (glomerular filtration rate and albuminuria) for CVD risk prediction. This is a critical missed opportunity to appropriately refine predicted risk and personalize prevention therapies according to CKD status, particularly since these measures are often already evaluated in clinical care. In this review, we provide an overview of CKD definition and staging, the subtypes of CVD most associated with CKD, major pathophysiological mechanisms, and the current state of CKD as a predictor of CVD in major clinical guidelines. We will introduce the novel concept of a “CKD Add-on”, which allows the incorporation of CKD measures in existing risk prediction models, and the implications of taking into account CKD in the management of CVD risk.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)110-118
Number of pages9
StatePublished - Oct 2021


  • Cardiovascular disease
  • Chronic kidney disease
  • Risk prediction

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine


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