Characterization of scattered radiation in kV CBCT images using Monte Carlo simulations

Geneviève Jarry, Sean A. Graham, Douglas J. Moseley, David J. Jaffray, Jeffrey H. Siewerdsen, Frank Verhaegen

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

136 Scopus citations


Kilovoltage (kV) cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) images suffer from a substantial scatter contribution. In this study, Monte Carlo (MC) simulations are used to evaluate the scattered radiation present in projection images. These predicted scatter distributions are also used as a scatter correction technique. Images were acquired using a kV CBCT bench top system. The EGSnrc MC code was used to model the flat panel imager, the phantoms, and the x-ray source. The x-ray source model was validated using first and second half-value layers (HVL) and profile measurements. The HVLs and the profile were found to agree within 3% and 6%, respectively. MC simulated and measured projection images for a cylindrical water phantom and for an anthropomorphic head phantom agreed within 8% and 10%. A modified version of the DOSXYZnrc MC code was used to score phase space files with identified scattered and primary particles behind the phantoms. The cone angle, the source-to-detector distance, the phantom geometry, and the energy were varied to determine their effect on the scattered radiation distribution. A scatter correction technique was developed in which the MC predicted scatter distribution is subtracted from the projections prior to reconstruction. Preliminary testing of the procedure was done with an anthropomorphic head phantom and a contrast phantom. Contrast and profile measurements were obtained for the scatter corrected and noncorrected images. An improvement of 3% for contrast between solid water and a liver insert and 11% between solid water and a Teflon insert were obtained and a significant reduction in cupping and streaking artifacts was observed.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)4320-4329
Number of pages10
JournalMedical physics
Issue number11
StatePublished - 2006
Externally publishedYes


  • Cone-beam CT
  • Monte Carlo
  • Scatter
  • Scatter correction

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biophysics
  • Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging


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